A Kernel Hacker Meets Fuchsia OS

Fuchsia is a general-purpose open-source operating system created by Google. It is based on the Zircon microkernel written in C++ and is currently under active development. The developers say that Fuchsia is designed with a focus on security, updatability, and performance. As a Linux kernel hacker, I decided to take a look at Fuchsia OS and assess it from the attacker’s point of view. This article describes my experiments.

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Catching bugs in VMware: Carbon Black Cloud Workload Appliance and vRealize Operations Manager

Last year we found a lot of exciting vulnerabilities in VMware products. The vendor was notified and they have since been patched. This is the second part of our research. This article covers an Authentication Bypass in VMware Carbon Black Cloud Workload Appliance (CVE-2021-21978) and an exploit chain in VMware vRealize Operations (CVE-2021-21975, CVE-2021-22023, CVE-2021-21983) which led to Remote Code Execution.

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Hunting for bugs in VMware: View Planner and vRealize Business for Cloud

Last year we found a lot of exciting vulnerabilities in VMware products. They were disclosed to the vendor, responsibly and have been patched. It’ll be a couple of articles, that disclose the details of the most critical flaws. This article covers unauthenticated RCEs in VMware View Planner (CVE-2021-21978) and in VMware vRealize Business for Cloud (CVE-2021-21984).

We want to thank VMware and their security response center for responsible cooperation. During the collaboration and communication, we figured out, that the main goal of their approach to take care of their customers and users.

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Fuzzing for XSS via nested parsers condition

When communicating online, we constantly use emoticons and put text in bold. Some of us encounter markdown on Telegram or GitHub, while forum-dwellers might be more familiar with BBCode.

All this is made possible by parsers, which find a special string (code/tag/character) in messages and convert it into beautiful text using HTML. And as we know, wherever there is HTML, there can be XSS.

This article reveals our novel technique for finding sanitization issues that could lead to XSS attacks. We show how to fuzz and detect issues in the HTML parsers with nested conditions. This technique allowed us to find a bunch of vulnerabilities in the popular products that no one had noticed before.

The technique was presented at Power Of Community 2021.

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WinRAR’s vulnerable trialware: when free software isn’t free

In this article we discuss a vulnerability in the trial version of WinRAR which has significant consequences for the management of third-party software. This vulnerability allows an attacker to intercept and modify requests sent to the user of the application. This can be used to achieve Remote Code Execution (RCE) on a victim’s computer. It has been assigned the CVE ID – CVE-2021-35052.

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Cisco Hyperflex: How We Got RCE Through Login Form and Other Findings

In February 2021, we had the opportunity to assess the HyperFlex HX platform from Cisco during a routine customer engagement. This resulted in the detection of three significant vulnerabilities. In this article we discuss our findings and will explain why they exist in the platform, how they can be exploited and the significance of these vulnerabilities.

The vulnerabilities discussed have been assigned CVE ID’s and considered in Cisco’s subsequent Security Advisories (12). These are:

  • CVE-2021-1497
    Cisco HyperFlex HX Installer Virtual Machine Command Injection Vulnerability (CVSS Base Score: 9.8);
  • CVE-2021-1498
    Cisco HyperFlex HX Data Platform Command Injection Vulnerability (CVSS Base Score: 7.3);
  • CVE-2021-1499
    the Cisco HyperFlex the HX the Data Platform the Upload the File Vulnerability (CVSS Base Score: 5.3)
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Guide to P-code Injection: Changing the intermediate representation of code on the fly in Ghidra

When we were developing the ghidra nodejs module for Ghidra, we realized that it was not always possible to correctly implement V8 (JavaScript engine that is used by Node.js) opcodes in SLEIGH. In such runtime environments as V8 and JVM, a single opcode might perform multiple complicated actions. To resolve this problem in Ghidra, a mechanism was designed for the dynamic injection of  p-code constructs, p-code being Ghidra’s intermediate language. Using this mechanism, we were able to transform the decompiler output from this:

to this:

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Creating a Ghidra processor module in SLEIGH using V8 bytecode as an example

Last year our team had to analyze V8 bytecode. Back then, there were no tools in place to decompile such code and facilitate convenient navigation over it. We decided to try writing a processor module for the Ghidra framework. Thanks to the features of the language used to describe the output instructions, we obtained not only a readable set of instructions, but also a C-like decompiler. This article is a continuation of the series (1, 2) on our Ghidra plugin.

Several months went by between writing the processor module and this article. In this time, the SLEIGH specification remained unchanged, and the described module works on versions 9.1.2 – 9.2.2, which have been released during the last six months.

On ghidra.re and in the documentation distributed with Ghidra there is a fairly good description of the capabilities of the language. These materials are worth reading before writing your own modules. Preexisting processor modules by the framework’s developers might be excellent examples, especially if you know their architecture.

You can see in the documentation that the processor modules for Ghidra are written in SLEIGH, a language derived from the Specification Language for Encoding and Decoding (SLED), which was developed specifically for Ghidra. It translates machine code into p-code (the intermediate language that Ghidra uses to build decompiled code). As a language for describing processor instructions, it has a lot of limitations, although they can be reduced with the p-code injection mechanism implemented as Java code.

The source code of the new processor module is presented on github. This article will review the key concepts that are used in the development of the processor module using pure SLEIGH, with certain instructions as examples. Working with the constant pool, p-code injections, analyzer, and loader will be or have already been reviewed in other articles. Also you can read more about analyzers and loaders in The Ghidra Book: The Definitive Guide.

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Decompiling Node.js in Ghidra

Have you ever wanted to find out how a program you often use, a game you play a lot, or the firmware of some realtime device actually works? If so, what you need is a disassembler. Better still, a decompiler. While things are pretty clear with x86–x64, Java, and Python, as there are plenty of disassemblers and decompilers to go around, with other languages, the situation is a little bit more complicated, and search engines will simply tell you ‘it can’t be done.’

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How we bypassed bytenode and decompiled Node.js bytecode in Ghidra

I build robots for fun.

Rick Sanchez

It’s common knowledge that in 2019 the NSA decided to open source its reverse engineering framework known as Ghidra.  Due to its versatility, it quickly became popular among security researchers. This article is one of many to come dedicated to covering the technical details of the ghidra_nodejs plugin for Ghidra, developed by our team. The plugin’s main job is to parse, disassemble and decompile NodeJS Bytenode (.jsc) binaries. The focus of this article is the V8 bytecode and the relevant source code entities. A brief description of the plugin is also provided, which will be expanded upon in greater detail in subsequent articles.

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