Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) is a web protocol that outlines how a web application on one domain can access resources from a server on a different domain. By default, web browsers have a Same-Origin Policy (SOP) that blocks these cross-origin requests for security purposes. However, CORS offers a secure way for servers to specify which origins are allowed to access their assets, thereby enabling a structured method of relaxing this policy.
In CORS, the server sends HTTP headers to instruct the browser on rules for making cross-origin requests. These rules define whether a particular HTTP request (such as GET or POST) from a certain origin is allowed. By managing the CORS headers, a server can control its resource accessibility on a case-by-case basis. This maintains the flexibility of cross-origin sharing without compromising overall security.
One handy feature of our private Impacket (by @fortra) fork is that it can leverage native SSPI interaction for authentication purposes when operating from a legit domain context on a Windows machine.
As far as the partial implementation of Ntsecapi represents a minified version of Oliver Lyak’s (@ly4k_) sspi module used in his great Certipy project, I’d like to break down its core features and showcase how easily it can be integrated into known Python tooling.
Given the Bring Your Own Interpreter (BYOI) concept, the combination of Impacket usage and SSPI capabilities can allow attackers to fly under the radar of endpoint security mechanisms as well as custom network detection rules more easily. We will discuss this in more detail further in the article.
On October 6th 2022, the BSC Token Hub bridge (hereinafter BSC), belonging to the largest cryptocurrency exchange, Binance, was hacked. This was one of the largest cryptocurrency hacks ever. BSC ensures the interaction between the Binance Beacon Chain blockchain used by Binance for decentralized management (stacking, voting) and Binance Smart Chain, an EVM-compatible blockchain used to create various decentralized applications. Hackers withdrew 2 million BNB (Binance’s cryptocurrency) from the bridge protocol, with 1 BNB worth $293 at the time. A total of $586 million was stolen.
MyBB is one seriously popular type of open-source forum software. However, even a popular tool can contain bugs or even bug chains that can lead to the compromise of an entire system. In this article, we’ll go over one such chain that we found.
To properly assess the security of a web application, it’s important to analyze it with regard to the server it will run on. Many things depend on the server, from processing user requests to the easiest way of achieving RCE. Armed with knowledge about the server, we can identify vulnerabilities in an application and make it more secure.
In this article we’ll look at Jetty, a well-known web server and Java web container that is typically deployed behind an Apache or NGINX proxy server. Here’s what we’ll cover:
- How to find paths to all web applications on the server.
- How to achieve RCE using an XML file.
- How to bypass a web application firewall and remain unnoticed.
Flutter applications can be found in security analysis projects or bugbounty programs. Most often, such assets are simply overlooked due to the lack of methodologies and ways to reverse engineer them. I decided not to skip this anymore and developed the reFlutter tool. This article describes the results of my research.
Many modern websites employ an automatic issuance and renewal of TLS certificates. For enterprises, there are DigiCert services. For everyone else, there are free services such as Let’s Encrypt and ZeroSSL.
There is a flaw in a way that deployment of TLS certificates might be set up. It allows anyone to discover all domain names used by the same server. Sometimes, even when there is no HTTPS there!
In this article, I describe a new technique for discovering domain names. Afterward, I show how to use it in threat intelligence, penetration testing, and bug bounty.
In this article I’ll show how to achieve a Remote Code Execution via XSS on the examples of Evolution CMS, FUDForum, and GitBucket.
During an internal penetration test, I discovered an unauthenticated Arbitrary Object Instantiation vulnerability in LAM (LDAP Account Manager), a PHP application.
PHP’s Arbitrary Object Instantiation is a flaw in which an attacker can create arbitrary objects. This flaw can come in all shapes and sizes. In my case, the vulnerable code could have been shortened to one simple construction:
That’s it. There was nothing else there, and I had zero custom classes to give me a code execution or a file upload. In this article, I explain how I was able to get a Remote Code Execution via this construction.
Fuchsia is a general-purpose open-source operating system created by Google. It is based on the Zircon microkernel written in C++ and is currently under active development. The developers say that Fuchsia is designed with a focus on security, updatability, and performance. As a Linux kernel hacker, I decided to take a look at Fuchsia OS and assess it from the attacker’s point of view. This article describes my experiments.