MyBB is one seriously popular type of open-source forum software. However, even a popular tool can contain bugs or even bug chains that can lead to the compromise of an entire system. In this article, we’ll go over one such chain that we found.Continue reading
Jetty Features for Hacking Web Apps
To properly assess the security of a web application, it’s important to analyze it with regard to the server it will run on. Many things depend on the server, from processing user requests to the easiest way of achieving RCE. Armed with knowledge about the server, we can identify vulnerabilities in an application and make it more secure.
In this article we’ll look at Jetty, a well-known web server and Java web container that is typically deployed behind an Apache or NGINX proxy server. Here’s what we’ll cover:
- How to find paths to all web applications on the server.
- How to achieve RCE using an XML file.
- How to bypass a web application firewall and remain unnoticed.
Researching Open Source apps for XSS to RCE flaws
In this article I’ll show how to achieve a Remote Code Execution via XSS on the examples of Evolution CMS, FUDForum, and GitBucket.Continue reading
Exploiting Arbitrary Object Instantiations in PHP without Custom Classes
During an internal penetration test, I discovered an unauthenticated Arbitrary Object Instantiation vulnerability in LAM (LDAP Account Manager), a PHP application.
PHP’s Arbitrary Object Instantiation is a flaw in which an attacker can create arbitrary objects. This flaw can come in all shapes and sizes. In my case, the vulnerable code could have been shortened to one simple construction:
That’s it. There was nothing else there, and I had zero custom classes to give me a code execution or a file upload. In this article, I explain how I was able to get a Remote Code Execution via this construction.Continue reading
Cisco Hyperflex: How We Got RCE Through Login Form and Other Findings
In February 2021, we had the opportunity to assess the HyperFlex HX platform from Cisco during a routine customer engagement. This resulted in the detection of three significant vulnerabilities. In this article we discuss our findings and will explain why they exist in the platform, how they can be exploited and the significance of these vulnerabilities.
The vulnerabilities discussed have been assigned CVE ID’s and considered in Cisco’s subsequent Security Advisories (1, 2). These are:
Cisco HyperFlex HX Installer Virtual Machine Command Injection Vulnerability (CVSS Base Score: 9.8);
Cisco HyperFlex HX Data Platform Command Injection Vulnerability (CVSS Base Score: 7.3);
the Cisco HyperFlex the HX the Data Platform the Upload the File Vulnerability (CVSS Base Score: 5.3)
From 0 to RCE: Cockpit CMS
Our team searched for bugs in the source code of Cockpit, an open-source content management system. Here is the description of Cockpit from its official site:
Cockpit is a headless CMS with an API-first approach that puts content first. It is designed to simplify the process of publication by separating content management from content consumption on the client side.
Cockpit is focusing just on the back-end work to manage content. Rather than worry about delivery of content through pages, its goal is to provide structured content across different channels via a simple API.
While investigating the Cockpit source code, we discovered numerous vulnerabilities. Attackers could exploit them to take control of any user account and perform remote code execution.
In this article, I will talk about the technical details and demonstrate how these vulnerabilities can be exploited.Continue reading
Unauthorized RCE in VMware vCenter
Since the PoC for the VMware vCenter RCE (CVE-2021-21972) is now readily available, we’re publishing our article covering all of the technical details.
In fall of 2020, I discovered couple vulnerabilities in the vSphere Client component of VMware vCenter. These vulnerabilities allowed non-authorized clients to execute arbitrary commands and send requests on behalf of the targeted server via various protocols:
- Unauthorized file upload leading to remote code execution (RCE) (CVE-2021- 21972)
- An unauthorized server-side request forgery (SSRF) vulnerabilities (CVE-2021-21973)
In this article, I will cover how I discovered the VMware vSphere client RCE vulnerability, divulge the technical details, and explain how it can be exploited on various platforms.Continue reading
Remote Code Execution in F5 Big‑IP
This is Big-IP, an application delivery and security services platform by F5 Networks, namely its Traffic Management User Interface (TMUI). In this article I will show how I’ve managed to discover CVE-2020-5902, an Unauthenticated Remote Command Execution vulnerability, in its web interface.
The CVE-2020-5902 vulnerability has been assigned a CVSS score of 10, the highest possible. According to the Threat Intelligence Services of Positive Technologies, before the fixes there were more than 8,000 devices available on the Internet and vulnerable to this issue.
Remote Code Execution in Citrix ADC
Many of you have probably heard of the CVE-2019-19781 vulnerability that I discovered at the end of last year. It is a critical vulnerability in Citrix ADC that allows unauthorized users to execute arbitrary operating system commands.
It caused quite a stir when Citrix released its guidelines for addressing the vulnerability since approximately 80,000 companies from around the globe were threatened by the problem. Another reason why the vulnerability attracted so much attention because Citrix ADC is installed on the border between external and internal organization networks. Thus, when a hacker exploits the CVE-2019-19781 vulnerability, he or she simultaneously gains access to the targeted company’s internal network and is able to develop attacks on the private segment of the network.Continue reading