From 0 to RCE: Cockpit CMS

Our team searched for bugs in the source code of Cockpit, an open-source content management system. Here is the description of Cockpit from its official site:

Cockpit is a headless CMS with an API-first approach that puts content first. It is designed to simplify the process of publication by separating content management from content consumption on the client side.

Cockpit is focusing just on the back-end work to manage content. Rather than worry about delivery of content through pages, its goal is to provide structured content across different channels via a simple API.

While investigating the Cockpit source code, we discovered numerous vulnerabilities. Attackers could exploit them to take control of any user account and perform remote code execution.

In this article, I will talk about the technical details and demonstrate how these vulnerabilities can be exploited.

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Unauthorized RCE in VMware vCenter

Since the PoC for the VMware vCenter RCE (CVE-2021-21972) is now readily available, we’re publishing our article covering all of the technical details.

In fall of 2020, I discovered couple vulnerabilities in the vSphere Client component of VMware vCenter. These vulnerabilities allowed non-authorized clients to execute arbitrary commands and send requests on behalf of the targeted server via various protocols:

  • Unauthorized file upload leading to remote code execution (RCE) (CVE-2021- 21972)
  • An unauthorized server-side request forgery (SSRF) vulnerabilities (CVE-2021-21973)

In this article, I will cover how I discovered the VMware vSphere client RCE vulnerability, divulge the technical details, and explain how it can be exploited on various platforms.

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Swarm of Palo Alto PAN-OS vulnerabilities

Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall (NGFW) is one of the leading enterprise firewalls used by companies around the world to protect against various cyber-attacks. It runs on its own operating system «PAN-OS».

In this article, we will analyze the vulnerabilities that lead to:

Using these vulnerabilities, an attacker can gain access to sensitive data, disrupt the availability of firewall components or gain access to internal network segments.

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Vulnerabilities in McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator

This August, I discovered three vulnerabilities in McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator (ePO) version 5.10.0.  McAfee ePO is software that helps IT administrators unify security management across endpoints, networks, data, and compliance solutions from McAfee and third-party solutions. McAfee ePO provides flexible automated management capabilities for identifying, handling, and responding to security issues and threats.

The login page of McAfee ePO

My testing uncovered three vulnerabilities:

  • A CSRF + SSRF + MITM chain that, if successfully exploited, allows an attacker who is not logged in to perform remote code execution on the server
  • Remote code execution by a logged-in user as the result of a ZipSlip attack
  • Reflected XSS
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Path Traversal on Citrix XenMobile Server

Citrix Endpoint Management, aka XenMobile, is used for managing employee mobile devices and mobile applications. Usually it is deployed on the network perimeter and has access to the internal network due to Active Directory integration. This makes XenMobile a prime target for security research.

During such research a path traversal vulnerability was discovered. This vulnerability allowed an unauthorized user to read arbitrary files, including configuration files containing passwords.

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Grafana 6.4.3 Arbitrary File Read

Grafana is an open-source application used for analytics, monitoring, and data visualization. Thousands of companies use Grafana, including major representatives such as PayPal, eBay, and Intel.

Last fall I found an Authenticated Arbitrary File Read vulnerability (CVE-2019-19499) in this system. Here I’ll share the details about how this vulnerability worked.

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Vulnerabilities in the Openfire Admin Console

Openfire is a Jabber server supported by Ignite Realtime. It’s a cross-platform Java application, which positions itself as a platform for medium-sized enterprises to control internal communications and make instant messaging easier.

I regularly see Openfire on penetration testing engagements, and most of the time all interfaces of this system are exposed to an external attacker, including the administrative interface on 9090/http and 9091/https ports:

Openfire Administration Console

Since the Openfire system is available on GitHub, I decided to examine the code of this web interface. This is a short writeup about two vulnerabilities I was able to find.

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Remote Code Execution in F5 Big‑IP

This is Big-IP, an application delivery and security services platform by F5 Networks, namely its Traffic Management User Interface (TMUI). In this article I will show how I’ve managed to discover CVE-2020-5902, an Unauthenticated Remote Command Execution vulnerability, in its web interface.

The CVE-2020-5902 vulnerability has been assigned a CVSS score of 10, the highest possible. According to the Threat Intelligence Services of Positive Technologies, before the fixes there were more than 8,000 devices available on the Internet and vulnerable to this issue.

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